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マカ「天然のバイアグラ」と呼んでいます・・・原住民のインディオは!!!マカといえばあの国この国ドットコム。マカを最重要商品として扱い、最高品質マカの品揃え。2倍濃縮のマカはダブル効果で超人気。マカ粒あり、マカパウダーの粉末あり、クリスピマカのフレークもあり。化学肥料無しで育てられた全て天然のマカ。海抜3400から3800メートルのJuninという所に位置しているMeseta de Bombという場所で収穫されているマカです。マカ購入ページ

左の写真が、マカの根っこの原料です。
厚生省の食品検査のために取り寄せたマカそのものです。これを乾燥させてマカの粉末を作ります。  

 

 

アンデスの荒涼とした高地に育つ根菜類のマカ。アンデス人参とも呼ばれインカ帝国時代以前より栽培され、夫婦円満の秘訣の植物として知られ、勝利の後の褒美として用いられていたほど珍重されていたようです

ペルーのメーカーがマカの写真と明細を送ってきました。英語ですが一応載せておきます。

 

Nutrition facts  :                           %
Protein (g/100g) (f x 6,25)                            11 - 17
Carbohydrates                                            70 - 75 
Total reducing sugars                                     9 - 12 
Fat (g/100g)                                                1  -  2
Calcium         (mg/100g)                            400  -  550
Iron (mg/100g)                                           10  -  15
Phosphorus (mg/100g)                               180  -  300
Sodium (mg/100g)                                       86  -  88
Potassium (mg/100g)                                  700  -  1.300
Riboflavin (mg/100g)                                 0,70  -  1,30
Vitamin C (mg/100g)                                   20  -  30
Zinc (mg/100g)                                             3  -  4

Microbiological limits :
Total aerobic microbial count                   Max. 100 ufc/g

Yeast and mould                                       Max.   60 ufc/g

Aminoacids

g/100 g of protein

Serine
Histidine
Glycine    
Threonine        
Alanine
Arginine   
Tyrosine
Phenylalaninine
Valine
Methionine
Isoleucine  
Leucine 
Lysine

HO-Proline     

5.1
2.2
6.8
3.3
6.3
9.9
3.1
5.5
7.9
2.8
4.7
9.1
5.4

2.7

Alkaloids

Amino Acids : Arginine, Glutamine, Glycine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Serine, Valine.

Fatty Acids :Lauric, Myristic, Palmitic, Palmitoleic, Linoleic, Oleic, Stearic, Tridecanoic, Pentadecanoic, Heptadecanoic.

Vitamins : A, B1, B2, B3, B12, C, D, & E

Minerals : Calcium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Silicon, Zinc

Sterols :Brassicasterol, Ergosterol, Ergostadienol, Sitosterol, Stigmasterol

Carbohydrates,

Protein

Isothiocyanates : benzil , p-methoxybenzyl

Saponins,

Tannins.

 **************************************************************

Family: Brassicaceae

Genus: Lepidium

Species: meyenii

Common names: Maca, Peruvian Ginseng, Maka, Maino, Ayak chichira, Ayuk Willku

Part Used: Roots

Maca is a hardy perennial plant cultivated high in the Andean Mountain at altitudes from 11,000-14,500 feet.(1) It has one of the highest frost tolerances among native cultivated species. It has a low-growing, mat-like stem system which at times goes unnoticed in a farmer's field.(2) Its scalloped leaves lie close to the ground and it produces self-fertile small off-white flowers typical to the mustard family which it belongs to. The part used is the tuberous root which is pear shaped, up to 8 cm in diameter and off-white in color. Unlike many other tuberous plants, Maca is propagated by seed.(2) Although it is a perennial, it is grown as an annual, and 7-9 months from planting are required to produce the harvested roots. The area where Maca is found high in the Andes is an inhospitable region of intense sunlight, violent winds and below freezing weather. With its extreme temperatures and poor rocky soil, the area rates among the world's worst farmland, yet over the centuries, Maca learned to flourish under these conditions. Maca was domesticated about 2000 years ago by the Inca Indians(1) and primitive cultivars of Maca have been found in archaeological sites dating as far back as 1600 B.C.(3, 4)

To the Andean Indians, Maca is a valuable commodity. Because so little else grows in the region, Maca is often traded with communities at lower elevations for other staples like rice, corn, and beans. The dried roots can be stored for up to seven years. Native Peruvians have traditionally utilized Maca since before the time of the Incas for both nutritional and medicinal purposes (1) Maca is an important staple in the diets of the people indigenous to the region since it has the highest nutritional value of any food crop grown there. It is rich in sugars, protein, starches, and essential minerals, especially iodine and iron. The tuber is consumed fresh or dried. The fresh roots are considered a treat and are baked or roasted in ashes much like sweet potatoes. The dried roots are stored and later boiled in water or milk to make a porridge. (3, 4, 5) In addition, they are often made into a popular sweet, fragrant, fermented drink called maca chicha. (2, 3) In Huancayo, Peru, even Maca jam and pudding are popular.(3) The tuberous roots have a tangy taste and an aroma similar to butterscotch.

Maca has been used medicinally for centuries to enhance fertility in humans and animals.(2, 4, 5, 6, 9) Soon after the Spanish Conquest in the South America, the Spanish found that their livestock were reproducing poorly in the highlands. The local Indians recommended feeding the animals Maca and so remarkable were the results that Spanish chroniclers gave in-depth reports.(3) Even Colonial records of some 200 years ago indicate that payments of roughly 9 tons of Maca were demanded from one Andean area alone for this purpose.(4, 5) Its fertility enhancing properties were supported clinically as early as 1961, when researchers discovered it increased the fertility of rats.(7) This energizing plant is also referred to as Peruvian ginseng, (1, 2, 4) although Maca is not in the same family as ginseng.

 

The nutritional value of dried Maca root is high, resembling cereal grains such as maize, rice and wheat. It has 59% carbohydrates, 10.2% protein, 8.5% fiber and 2.2% lipids.(5) It has a large amount of essential amino acids and higher levels of iron and calcium than potatoes.(8) Maca contains important amounts of fatty acids including linolenic, palmitic and oleic acids. It is rich in sterols and has a high mineral content as well.(5) In addition to its rich supply of essential nutrients, Maca contains alkaloids, tannins and saponins.(3, 8) A chemical analysis conducted in 1981 showed the presence of biologically active aromatic isothiocyanates, especially p-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate, which have reputed aphrodisiac properties.(4) Initial analysis of Maca indicate that the effects on fertility are a result of the glucosinolates.(3, 4, 8) Alkaloids are also present, but have not yet been quantified.(8)

Maca is growing in world popularity due to its energizing effects, fertility enhancement and aphrodisiac qualities. Other traditional uses include increasing energy, stamina and endurance in athletes, promoting mental clarity, treating male impotence, and helping with menstrual irregularities and female hormonal imbalances including menopause and chronic fatigue syndrome.(1, 10) It is used as an alternative to anabolic steroids by bodybuilders due to its richness in sterols.(10) Today, dried Maca roots are ground to powder and sold in drug stores in capsules as a medicine and food supplement to increase stamina and fertility.(4, 11) In Peruvian herbal medicine, Maca is also used as an immunostimulant, for anemia, tuberculosis, menstrual disorders, menopause symptoms, stomach cancer, sterility and other reproductive and sexual disorders as well as to enhance memory.(11)

The cultivation of Maca is increasing in the highlands of the Andes to meet the growing demand world wide for medicinal uses.(4, 12) In this severely economically depressed region, the market created for Maca will offer new and important sources of income for the Indigenous Peoples of the Andes. A new cultivar of Maca has been identified in the major growing regions of the highlands which will supply much of this new demand and it has been named Lepidium peruvianum Chacon sp.(12)

 

USES : Anemia, Aphrodisiac, Energy, Fertility, Impotence, Memory, Menopause, Menstrual Tonic, Tuberculosis

 

Footnotes:

Rea, J. 1992. Raices andinas: maca. in Bermejo, H. and Leon, J.E., eds., Cultivos marginados, otra perspectiva de 1492.

King, Steven, 1986. "Ancient Buried Treasure of the Andes," Garden, November/December.

Report of an Ad Hoc Panel of the Advisory Committee on Technical Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, National Research Council, 1989. Lost Crops of the Incas: Little Known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation.

Johns, T. 1981. The anu and the maca. Journal of Ethnobiology, 1:208-212

Quiros, C. et al., "Physiological Studies and Determination of Chromosome Number in Maca, Lepidium Meyenii." Economic Botany 50(2) pp. 216-223. 1996

Leon, J. 1964. The "maca" (Lepidium Meyenii) a little known food plant of Peru. Economic Botany. 18:122-127

Chacon, R.C., 1961. Estudio fitoquimico de Lepidium meyenii. Dissertation, Univ., Nac. Mayo de San marcos, Peru.

Dini, A., et.al., 1994., "Chemical composition of Lepidium meyenii," Food Chemistry 49: 347-349.

"Plant Medicine's Importance Stressed by CSU Professor," HerbalGram Magazine, Spring 1989, p. 12.

Steinberg, P., 1995. Phil Steinberg's Cat's Claw News, Vol. 1, Issue 2, July/August.

Gomez, A., "Maca, Es alternativa Nutricional para el ano 2000." Informe Ojo con su Salud No. 58 August 15, 1997, Lima Peru

Chacon, G., 1990. La maca (Lepidium peruvianum) Chacon sp. Nov. Y su habitat. Revista Peruana de Biologia 3: 171-272

Efect of a lipidic extract from Lepidium meyenii on sexual behaviour in mice and rats

Bo Ling Zheng, Kan He, Calvin Hyungchan, et al.
Urology: 55 (4), 2000

Objectives: To determine the effect or oral administration of a purified lipidic extract from Lepidium meyenii (MacaPure M-01 and M-02) on the number of complete intromission and mating in normal mice, and on the latent period of erection (LPE) in rats with erectile dysfuntion.

Methods: Mice and ratas were randomly divided into several experimental groups and control groups. A 10 % ethanol suspension of M-01 and M-02 was orally administered for 22 days to the experimental groups according to the dosage specified by the experimental design. On day 22, 30 minutes after the dose was administered to the male mice, 2 virgin female mice were placed with 1 male mouse. The number of complete intromissions of each male mouse in 3 hours was recorded. In an assessment of 1 day of mating , each male mouse was cohabited with 5 estrous female mice overnight. The number of sperm-positive females was recorded. The LPE was measured to assess the sexual function in rats with erectile dysfunction. By using a YSD-4G multi fuction instrument , an electric pulse at 20 V was applied to stimulate the rat's penis, end the duration from the start of the stimulus to full erection was measured in seconds as the LPE.

Results: In the normal male mice, the number of complete intromissions during the 3 hour period was 16.33 +/- 1.78, 46.67 +/- 2.39 and 67.01 +/- 2.55 for the control group, M-01 group, and M-02 group, respectively. In the assessment of mating, the number of sperm positive females increase from 0.6 +/- 0.7 in the control group to 1.5 +/- 0.5 in the M-01 experimental group. The LPE of male rats with erectile dysfunction was 112 +/- 13 seconds with a regular diet (control group). The oral administration of M-01 at a dose of 180 or 1800 mg/kg body weight and M-02? at a dose of 45, 180 or 1800 mg/kg body weight reduced the LPE to 54 +/- 12 seconds, 54 +/- 13 seconds, 71 +/- 12 seconds, 73 +/- 12 seconds and? 41 +/- 13 seconds, respectively. The LPE of the surgical rats treated with M-01 at the lowest dose (45 mg/kg) was 121 +/- 12 seconds; thus, the change was not significant.

Conclusions: Oral administration of M-01 and M-02 enhanced the sexual function of the mice rats, as evidenced by an increase in the number of complete intromissions and the number of sperm positive females in normal mice, and a decrease in the LPE in male rats with erectile dysfunction. The present study reveals for the first time an aphrodisiac activity of Lepidium meyenii, an Andean Mountain herb.

マカのすべて!

 

Keywords: maca, maka, macapower, andes ninjin, carrot

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